Friday, May 27, 2011

Do Children with ADHD Need Structure?

Yes, yes, yes!! Children with ADHD often have difficulties in organization. This is arguably due to their distractibility, which interferes with them being able to focus on planning and executing their academic work. Any type of predictable structure that a teacher and a parent can offer is very helpful in terms of teaching these children to maintain control and accountability over their own lives.

The optimal plan, of course, is to have both the teacher and the parent facilitate the same organizational skills, such as how children with ADHD plan when they are completing their academic work. The plan that is agreed upon should be stimulating, engaging and one that the child is likely to follow.

For example, when you are designing a checklist of a particular child’s homework and upcoming projects, use color-coded ink so that the child notices his assignments immediately. (Older children should design the checklist in collaboration with you.) Make sure that the child understands that this checklist is based on the days of the week as written on a calendar. Write the child’s assignments on a calendar as well, in the same color ink as on the checklist, so that he can see the upcoming assignments. In that way, he has a checklist to follow as well as a calendar in order to confirm the due dates of the assignments.

Use the child’s favorite colors when you are creating the checklist. It is vital for the child to foresee the projects that are due in the future, so that he can learn to work toward completing other work that is not as time consuming. In that way, there is plenty of time left for him to work on his projects.

I would also scaffold him checking off the assignments that he completes, (in the same colored pens as the one that was used to write down his assignments,) so that in time, he remembers to check them off by himself. When he sees all of the assignments that he has completed, he will feel so proud of himself!

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Children with ADHD Maintaining Eye Contact

Many children with ADHD have difficulty maintaining eye contact, which is essential in terms of listening to another individual and responding to them. Remember that a child does not have to stare at another individual 100% of the time. He can look at the person and then look away. The key here is whether or not the child is paying attention to what the other person is saying, after which, whether or not he responds to that person.

The first thing to remember if you are concerned that your child does not maintain eye contact when you are with him, or when he is with other adults, is whether or not he maintains eye contact with his peers. I actually had an interesting conversation with a child to whom I teach social skills the other day. I asked him if he realized that he did not look at another person when that person spoke to him. He said that he did know that he was not looking at the other person.

Then, I asked him whether or not he looked at his peers when they spoke to him. Surprisingly, he said that he did so. I then asked why he thought that he looked at his peers, but did not look at adults, such as his parents. He said: “Well, when other children talk to me, I know that everything that they say is important, so I always look at them.” I was stunned, never having heard that logic from a child with ADHD before, or any other child for that matter!

Please comment on whether or not your child with ADHD or a child whom you teach maintains eye contact with either adults or his peers.

Saturday, May 21, 2011

Would you like to buy an E copy of my book?

Would you like to buy an E copy of my book, ADHD and Social Skills: A Step-by-Step Guide for Teachers and Parents?

Here is a link to the venders that you can access:
It's from the Rowman & Littlefield website

Friday, May 20, 2011

Is your Adolescent with ADHD Starting High School in the Fall? Does that Mean that he has to Take on more Responsibility?

After you found out that your child was diagnosed with ADHD, your behavior most likely changed. All of a sudden, you began to think about your child as someone who needs help to do his homework, pick out his clothes for school, and intercede between him and a friend, among other behaviors. You did what you had to do in order to help your child to do whatever typical children did as well as accomplish whatever typical children accomplished.

Then, out of the blue, your child is ready for high school. The help that you previously have given your child seems (as others, such as friends and grandparents have pointed out to you) to cause him to remain dependent and unwilling to manage his own responsibilities. You know very well that the last thing that you want is for your child to be looked upon as someone who is not accountable and appears to be vulnerable and fragile, because as you and your child know from the past, that kind of demeanor leads to bullying.

What can you do now in order to help him to take responsibility for his actions and his homework before he attends his first day of high school? I know that it seems overwhelming, and quite honestly, it is overwhelming, because it appears that you and your spouse have to change every single thing that you have done. It becomes especially anxiety-provoking if your husband and you are not on the same page.

Where and how can you begin? First, you have to talk to your spouse and make sure that both of you are treating your adolescent in the same way. Second, you have to talk to your child and explain to him why many things are going to be changing in terms of him taking on more responsibility.

More later….But first, a few questions for you. Are you experiencing an issue such as this one right now? How are you encouraging your adolescent to take on more responsibility? How is your adolescent responding to entering high school in the Fall? Does he seem to be aware that he will need to become more accountable for his homework, among other things?

Monday, May 16, 2011

A Method to Encourage your Adolescent with ADHD to Complete his Homework without Arguing with you

You pick up your child from his extracurricular activity and tired from your own busy day, you head home. The usual conversation ensues: “Okay, Joey, sit down and start your homework.” Joey says: Nooooooo…I’m tired. I’m going to check my email first.” Then the “wild rumpus starts!” You know how the conversation continues, so I will not repeat it.

The high school years are difficult enough, but when you are going through them with an adolescent with ADHD, it is quite a bit more difficult.

First of all, your husband and yourself must be on the same page in terms of how each of you responds to your child’s behavior, or your child may arguably try to manipulate the parent who does not agree with the other’s methods. 

Second of all, I would be in close contact with your child’s teacher before embarking on any of my suggestions. In that way, if your teenager does not complete his homework or only completes part of it, the burden of deciding on the consequences that the teenager will have to face will fall on his teacher. You need to remain your child’s supporter, which we know that the teenager with ADHD desperately needs, instead of his sargent.
The idea here is to encourage your child to do his homework while decreasing arguments between your child and yourself.  Here are some suggestions to begin our week of entries associated with the very important topic of helping adolescents with ADHD.

1.     After you walk in the door, have a cup of tea, coffee, etc. with your teenager. Talk about anything, but do not talk about his homework. Talk about popular topics, such as American Idol, his favorite sports team, whatever…anything except his homework

2.     Tell him in a calm voice and not in a controlling voice, that he will have about 20 minutes to himself, so that he can wind down from his day. Make sure, however, that he is “on the clock,” which he monitors himself.  It is especially important for teenagers with ADHD to become accountable for their own homework. If he does not honor the 20 minute rule, the best thing that you can do is tell him with some humor that the time has come to do his work.

3.     Tell him that he will be permitted to go on the computer again after completing 30 minutes of work, which he will monitor himself. Do not order him under any circumstances to do his homework, because he will immediately become defiant.

4.     On the first day of this experiment, if he does not do his homework after the 20 minute relaxation period, I would remind him once that the relaxation period has expired, and then I would just become involved in my own responsibilities. ( I know that this is a very difficult thing for you to do.)

5.     If he does not do his homework at all on that day, I would let him experience the consequences from the teacher. If he comes to you at 11:30 at night crying that he did not complete his homework, I would have another calm and quiet discussion with him. However, this time, I would ask him in a calm voice how it happened that he did not complete his homework. I would then suggest to him that he is clearly too tired to do his homework so late on that particular evening. However, I would propose the idea to him that he might get up early in the morning and just plow through as much homework as he can. If he resists this idea, I would let it go for one day and see how the teacher handles it.

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Social Skills Taught through Conversations with the Child

It would be easy to think that social skills taught through conversations with the child is a natural occurrence. Unfortunately, this is not so with children with ADHD. First, in terms of children with ADHD of diverse populations, parents of lower socioeconomic status speak in fewer and less complex words to their children in response to a question posed by their children than those of a higher socioeconomic status. “Children from different social strata use different-sized vocabularies” (Hoff, 2003, p. 1375). In my field research, I observed this to be true in the families whom I observed. Therefore, it may be arguably difficult for some parents to teach their children social skills through conversations than others.

Second, children with ADHD typically are not adept at listening acutely, which is essential in any conversation between two people. In addition to listening well to another person, what other skill would be optimal in order to learn social skills
through conversations? Children have to learn to attend to what other people are saying if they are going to be able to listen to them. What method can teachers use to ensure that children with ADHD are attending and listening? It is vital, as I said earlier, to make sure that the child with ADHD knows how to maintain eye contact. Just because a child is looking at someone does not mean that he is attending to or listening to that person, however. After the child maintains eye contact, he must pay attention to every word that another person says as well as listening to every word.

How can teachers or parents help children with ADHD to attend and to listen better? A good method to try is to play a memory game.

✱ Say a sentence to the child.

✱ Take some words out of the sentence (verbally) and ask the child to tell you what is missing. For example: Tigers have stripes on their bodies.

✱ Say out loud: “Tigers stripes bodies.”

✱ Ask him, “What words are missing?”

If the child is able to write out the answers, have him do so. By achieving closure in terms of the sentence, children will be more likely to remember the sentence.

You can also write the words on pieces of paper and paste them to small pieces of cardboard. The teacher places the words from the phrases above in an incorrect order. She then has the child with ADHD move the words around until they are in the correct order to make a meaningful sentence. Children with ADHD are often good listeners when they pay attention to things that interest them. For example, when a child with ADHD watches a television show or a movie that he likes, he can tell you what has happened as well as the names of the characters. It is possible, therefore, that children with ADHD exhibit selective attention and selective listening. They may pay attention just to topics that interest them. Subsequently, they may only listen to conversations that they think may interest them.

 Teachers have to work with children with ADHD to attend to and to listen to what they are not as interested in, as well as what they are interested in. A “deal” or two may have to be made to encourage these children to listen to something with which they are not interested as practice for another time that that topic may come up in an actual conversation. Sometimes, these children may be so distractible that they may not realize that most conversations can be interesting.

Here is an example:

Charlie is interested in baseball so he listens intently to any conversation about baseball. His friends are discussing topics not related to baseball, as follows:

“I really like fast cars.”

“How do you know? Have you ever ridden in a fast car?”

“No, but I watch a television show about fast cars. Sometimes, I close my eyes and pretend that I am driving a fast car, like a race car.”

“Then, you must really feel like you know what it is like!”

“I do!”

The teacher can explain to the child that talking about fast cars may be similar to talking about baseball players who are very fast running the bases, such as those players who steal many bases. The next time someone has a conversation about a topic with which he is not interested, he may more readily remain in the conversation. Speaking of topics, are you wondering what happened to the conversation about social skills?

Conversations about what are positive social skills are important so that the child with ADHD can learn to attend and therefore learn to listen better. Let us assume that the teacher or the parent has taught the child with ADHD to attend and to listen more effectively. After the teacher feels that the child has learned to attend and can listen more effectively, she can then begin to teach social skills with intent.

She can teach these social skills intentionally by embedding the social skills training into everyday circumstances. If these children attend and listen better, they can be taught other social skills intentionally and incidentally through conversations. Most of the social skills discussed here can be taught in conversations throughout the day.

Monday, May 9, 2011

Should Children with Diagnoses of ADHD be Told by their Parents that they have ADHD?

After parents take their child to a neurologist who determines that their child has a diagnosis of ADHD, they often ask me whether or not they should tell their children that he/she has ADHD. Oftentimes, children with ADHD have accompanying anxiety. They see themselves exhibiting inappropriate behaviors that they cannot control, which frequently is met by peer rejection. That being said, behaving in a certain way and not knowing the cause of their behavior may contribute to the child with ADHD’s anxiety. Additionally, even if they do not experience anxiety, seeing oneself exhibiting socially inappropriate behavior with the resulting peer rejection may lead them to experience anxiety. So, should children with ADHD be told by their parents the root of their difficulties?

Children with ADHD have a right to know if there is a reason that they behave as they do, or are unfocused or impulsive. Typically, these children are quite relieved to know the derivation of their distractibility, hyperactivity and/or their impulsivity. Once they know and are taught to understand their symptoms, they can begin to learn how to diminish their symptoms.

How did you Spend Mother's Day with your Child with ADHD?

Do you have a story to share about how you spent Mother's Day with your child with ADHD?

Everyone who reads this blog would love to hear your story. You may write your comments to the blog anonymously, if you wish. So, how was your day?

Wednesday, May 4, 2011

An Article Entitled Handling Homework Hassles that was written in the CHADD journal Attention

This article comes as a copy and paste from the CHADD journal Attention. Questions were asked of experts on homework. Let me know what you think of the answers.

Handle Homework Hassles

Attention asked six experts:

If you could advise parents of children with ADHD about the subject of homework, what would you consider the three most helpful pieces of information?


by Maureen A. McQuiggan, EdD

Tips and tricks for surviving the homework wars fill volumes. Strategies intended to “help” with homework often leave both parent and child feeling like they are just adding to the workload. The real key to success with homework rests in identifying strategies that work for all homework all the time. Here are three basic interventions that get the job done and build valuable lifelong habits:

Process is more important than product. In recent years, educators have perfected the art of outlining explicitly the product they expect from students. Rubrics and assignment contracts spell out clearly what teachers expect to see handed in. The missing link often rests with the process. Help your child get from “I haven’t even thought about the assignment” to handing in a quality product by creating process cards. Together with your child, outline clear and simple steps to completing the task. Cards for tasks such as learning new vocabulary and outlining reading materials can be used repeatedly to build both confidence and good work habits. Start each step with a motivational check box that can be ticked off for a sense of accomplishment.

All reading assignments must be active. Asking a child with ADHD to simply read a chapter for homework is like asking him or her to watch grass grow—many will comply, but in the end the grass and child remain unchanged. If reading assignments are not active, the brain is not engaged, attention wanders, and learning does not take place. Active reading strategies can involve asking students to locate key ideas in the reading, color coding answers to the end-of-chapter questions, or creating questions based on the reading.

Build basic skills. Basic skills are the gifts that keep on giving. Devoting a chunk of time in the summer to targeted basic skills practice such as increasing reading fluency, improving written language skills, or committing math facts to memory will help build your child’s automaticity. Students who read more fluently, compute with speed and accuracy, and write with ease will realize the benefits across all academic tasks.

Maureen A. McQuiggan, EdD, is the Literacy Coordinator for the Radnor Township School District in Radnor, Pennsylvania, and an adjunct professor in special education at Immaculata University. She is a member of the professional advisory board for Chester County/Main Line CHADD and the parent of two children affected by ADHD.


by Courtney Calio, MSEd

Students with ADHD feel overwhelmed with the idea of homework. Work outside of the school day requires time management, focus, and self-regulation—all skills that do not come easily for those fighting ADHD. Not to mention that the required task could be difficult, in a content area of little interest, or seen by the child as pointless. These possible culprits are at the core of the all-too-familiar scene: fighting and crying over homework with your child at the kitchen table, plugging through one spelling word or math fact at a time.

The reality is that all children of this generation are required to sustain a daily routine that requires intense academic rigor. Eligible content and high-stakes standardized testing leave little room in the school day to release extra energy or engage in self-selected learning activities. Unfortunately, there is little reprieve from this routine for many children at dismissal time. The transition from school to home, usually with well-deserved extracurricular activities jammed in between, creates a difficult dilemma. How do you explain to your child who has ADHD that he or she must be focused all day at school to do his or her best work, but then must also refocus at home to do more schoolwork?

As an elementary educator, I have come to realize that only so much can be expected at home from all children, that the smallest modifications can reap huge rewards, and that without communication (from teacher, parent and child) the battle is never won. My advice to parents of children with ADHD:

You must communicate with your child's teacher about homework. Determine the exact purpose of the homework. Is the teacher open to differentiating the assignment to meet the strengths of your student? Your child's teacher will not understand any struggles going on at home unless you communicate them and work together to develop possible alternatives.

Consider your child's learning style. Is your child a great artist, musician, or athlete? Does your child love technology? Seek out ways to complete a reading log or memorize spelling words and math facts that involve your child's natural strengths, known as multiple intelligences in the world of education. Find activities that are enjoyable but meaningful and produce the same results.

Stay positive and involve your child in open dialogue. Involve your child in discussions with the teacher and demonstrate how to communicate and voice struggles. Your child knows he or she has ADHD and it will always present challenges in life. There will be many times when modifications can't be made and when one just has to get the job done. Explain this, each and every time. Show your child that you are advocating for him or her, that you understand, and that learning how to cope and overcome will make him or her stronger.

Courtney Calio, MSEd, teaches fifth grade in the Kennett Consolidated School District in Pennsylvania.


by Sheila Grant

As a parent, I have experienced the stress and tension of trying to get my kids to complete their homework. When you break it down, the steps required to complete homework can be especially challenging for a student with ADHD:

Figure out the assignment. (Big problem, because it is not always written down.)

Do you have the right materials to complete assignment? (Is the book at home?)

Do you have an understanding of what is required? (Your child may have the assignment, but does not really know what is required.)

Complete the assignment. (This is the hard part.)

Hand in the assignment. (How many times does your child finally complete homework, only to leave it on kitchen table?)

After many stressful nights, tears, and fights, hiring a homework helper was the best thing I ever did for my family when my kids were in elementary and middle school. I hired many wonderful college students and graduate students over the years. Some were studying to be special education teachers. Once or twice a week, the homework helper sat in the kitchen with my child and supervised homework. The job included going through the backpack to find all of the errant papers, checking assignment books, working on organization, and making sure the assignments were complete and put away in the backpack. I was able to prepare dinner quietly; there were no fights, and my children felt a sense of accomplishment and confidence in their ability to do the work.

Homework helpers do not cost nearly as much as a tutor; figure on paying between $8 and $15 per hour. Here are my tips:

If you have a university near you, try posting an ad. There are always students who need jobs and are perfect for elementary age through high school. Mature high school students would work well for elementary-age children.

Be prepared to change over homework helpers if they do not work out. Look for one that is very organized, very kind, and comfortable setting limits with your child. For example, if you asked my son if he had any homework, he would frequently say no because he simply forgot. The effective homework helper did not stop there, but went through the backpack and the assignment book and almost always found something that needed to be done, even if it was simply organizing school materials or reviewing material.

Ask for an extra set of books to be kept at home. This accommodation should be a part of the child’s IEP or 504 Plan to ensure you get that extra set of books.

Sheila Grant is the coordinator of the Chester County/Main Line CHADD parent support group and the parent of a school-age child affected by ADHD.


by Jim Karustis, PhD

Many years ago I discovered that homework problems can truly rip families apart, and that is no exaggeration. Common complaints include: “My kid will argue for six hours about doing homework that would take her fifteen minutes!” “He says he does his homework at school, then I get hit with surprises at teacher conference time.” And, in a different vein: “My child really does try, but homework seems to take up all of her time every night.” In a way homework can be a silent problem, because many students do their homework struggling at home—and as long as they finally complete the work and submit it, the teacher may not realize that there is a problem. In fact, many well-meaning parents gradually find themselves taking over the lion’s share of homework responsibilities, out of fear that their children will be penalized for incomplete work.

If your child is experiencing significant homework problems, review the basics of what we call the homework ritual. Get clear on the rules yourself, then review them with your child and post them prominently in your home.

As much as possible, homework should begin at the same time each day. There should be a designated, distraction-minimized location. Don’t believe it when your child says he can pay attention better when the television is on—turn it off. (However, some children do fare better, mainly for rote tasks, when there is some subdued music in the background.) The homework location should be virtually a sacred spot, set aside only for homework, so that your child can keep materials there and not confuse the location with other activities.

If these elements of the homework ritual have been problematic, then I suggest that you implement an incentive system that targets the troublesome homework-related behaviors—for example, fifteen minutes earned for her favorite video game for beginning homework with one reminder.

The next issue is to keep separate and distinct your roles as homework manager and homework tutor. Managerial duties include the structure of homework time and making sure you know what your child has to do for homework. Once you are confident your child understands the directions, then leave the homework station. Inform your child that you will check back later, but that you expect that he will have completed X number of problems. The assistance with the actual instructional material can come later.

All students should use their homework assignment books. Many or most schools are establishing online assignment sites. These may at some point greatly reduce the importance of pen-and-paper assignment books, but the systems remain works in progress—with variable reliability—for many students. If compliance with consistently using the assignment book has been a problem for your child, you may wish to ask the teachers to sign the book on a daily basis, including ‘no homework’ written in and signed as indicated. If your child is one of those who says she has completed her homework at school, then make it clear that privileges at home are contingent upon her bringing the work home for you to compare against what is in the assignment book.

If you have these elements in place and still experience significant problems, it may be time to request a meeting of the school’s Instructional Support Team (private schools have equivalent teams with varying names). The IST can assist with basic interventions regarding homework and related issues, and can also begin the process of exploring the possibility of whether your child is receiving instruction consistent with her current level of functioning. For students with ADHD, requesting reduced homework demands is a common and reasonable intervention.

Homework can be put in its place for what it is meant to be, which is a reinforcement of classroom instruction. If it is dominating home life, then try the modifications outlined above, and also consider seeking assistance from the IST and from a qualified psychologist with expertise in school issues.

A psychiatrist in private practice, James Lorenzo Karustis, PhD, is a member of the professional advisory board for Chester County/Main Line CHADD. He coauthored Homework Success for Children with ADHD: A Family-School Intervention Program (Guilford Press, 2001).


by Thomas J. Power, PhD

Debate continues about the value of homework and whether homework should be assigned to students, particularly in the elementary grades. Although many arguments have been made in favor of homework, three are especially important. First, family involvement in education clearly has been shown to have a positive effect on children’s performance in school. Homework provides an opportunity for families to be involved in their children’s education and to help their children to do well in school. Second, the quality of the family-school relationship is critical for school success. Homework is a natural means of family-school collaboration and provides ongoing opportunities for parents and teachers to connect with each other. Third, when students transition into high school and college, they generally need good work habits to be able to work effectively on their own. Homework provides an opportunity for students to develop independent study skills.

The most important question is not whether to assign homework but how to support families with homework. The following are a few points to consider:

It is critical for homework assignments to be adjusted so that students experience high rates of success. Parents have an important role in negotiating with teachers the right amount and type of homework.

Homework can be a battleground that has negative effects on student motivation to learn and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Many parents need training to design a homework routine and use positive reinforcement strategies that will be effective. School guidance counselors and your child’s doctor may be able to offer referrals to a professional who can offer this service.

Homework assignments can be overwhelming to children and their parents. It is usually a good idea to break up homework into manageable chunks or units and to set goals for completion and accuracy for each unit. Subsequently, children can earn positive reinforcement for being able to achieve established goals.

Thomas J. Power, PhD, is professor of pediatrics and education at the University of Pennsylvania and director of the Center for Management of ADHD at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. He is a former member of CHADD's professional advisory board. He is one of the coauthors of Homework Success for Children with ADHD: A Family-School Intervention Program (Guilford Press, 2001).


by Meghan S. Leahy, MS

Homework can be very stressful for both adults and students. The best approach is to find a system that works for everyone and make it a habit. Discovering the system that works best can be tricky. It takes experimentation, creativity, and patience. Also, the system needs to be flexible, re-examined, and tweaked over time. For students with ADHD, the key is flexible structure. Adults have to remember that it is their job to implement this structure for students in a positive manner. It is the student’s job to engage in the homework process and complete the work. This is an important relationship. Adults need to find a balance and model productive behaviors while allowing responsibility for quality homework completion to remain with the student. Students are empowered by adults who can honestly and enthusiastically help them discover success in small, continuous steps.

Here are a few helpful tips:

Make a plan. Know what is required; awareness is key. Each night, have the student make a list of all the work that needs to be done, for that night and for the week. Discuss a plan of attack for completion. How will the work be broken down?

Use your words and laugh a lot. Research has proven that positive reinforcement is the most successful way to motivate students with ADHD. Avoid negative language and always ask open-ended questions—remember to wait for a reply. Realistically, not too many students enjoy homework. Don’t judge. Address the fact that it is a reality that must be accepted and talk it through. Some students need to vent. Let them discuss how hard life can be—as long as they are talking while they work.

Redefine “perfect.” There is no such thing as perfect, so help your students to set reasonable goals that will make them (and you) “perfectly” happy. At the end of each marking period, reward progress, examine setbacks and set new goals.

Meghan S. Leahy, MS, is the director of Leahy Learning and a clinical associate at the Penn Adult ADHD Treatment and Research Program at the University of Pennsylvania.


Maureen A. McQuiggan, EdD, is the Literacy Coordinator for the Radnor Township School District in Radnor, Pennsylvania, and an adjunct professor in special education at Immaculata University. She is a member of the professional advisory board for ChesterCounty/Main Line CHADD and the parent of two children affected by ADHD. Courtney Calio, MSEd, teaches fifth grade in the Kennett Consolidated School District in Pennsylvania. Sheila Grant is the coordinator of the Chester County/Main Line CHADD parent support group and the parent of a school-age child affected by ADHD. A psychiatrist in private practice, James Lorenzo Karustis, PhD, is a member of the professional advisory board for Chester County/Main Line CHADD. He coauthored Homework Success for Children with ADHD: A Family-School Intervention Program (Guilford, 2001). Thomas J. Power, PhD, is professor of pediatrics and education at the University of Pennsylvania and director of the Center for Management of ADHD at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. He is a former member of CHADD's professional advisory board and one of the coauthors of Homework Success for Children with ADHD: A Family-School Intervention Program (Guilford, 2001). Meghan S. Leahy, MS, is the director of Leahy Learning and a clinical associate at the Penn Adult ADHD Treatment and Research Program at the University of Pennsylvania.

From the August 2010 issue of Attention. Copyright © 2010 by Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission from CHADD is prohibited.